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Types of Building Foundation Based on Depth

On every building construction, foundations are structural elements that connect buildings with soil and move the load from the structure to the ground. Generally there are shallow or deep foundations.

Foundation design is the application of soil mechanics and rock mechanics (Geotechnical techniques) in the design of building structural elements. The design of foundations for tall buildings must involve structural experts.

Type of Building Foundation

Based on the location of the strong soil depth that is used as its support, the foundation is classified into 2 types, namely:

A. Shallow Foundation

Shallow foundation is usually used for light load construction and fairly good surface coating conditions. This foundation has a relatively shallow depth of entry, only a few meters into the soil, which is around 0.8 m - 1 m. Because the carrying capacity of the soil is sufficient. Shallow foundation consists of:
Local Foundation (Single Footing)
Continuous Foundation (Continuous Footing)
Plate Foundation

Foundation which includes the type of shallow foundation, namely:

1. Stone Foundation

Stone foundations are often found in residential buildings. This foundation is still used, because besides being strong, this foundation is still cheap. The shape is trapezoid with a height of 60-80 cm, the width of the foundation is 60-80 cm and the width of the foundation is 25-30 cm. The shape of this foundation can be seen in the picture.

2. Foot Plate Foundation

The foundation of the palm is made of reinforced concrete, with a strong soil depth of up to 2 m below ground level. The shape of the telapat foundation can be seen in the picture below.

At the bottom there is a kind of widening of trapezoidal legs or concrete plates. The foundation of the palm is usually used in buildings with two or more floors with good soil conditions.

3. Concrete Strip Plate Foundation

The foundation of the concrete slab is very strong, because the whole body consists of reinforced concrete and the price is cheaper than the river stone foundation. The size of the lane width is the same as the bottom width of the river stone foundation, which is 70 cm. Because the function of the concrete lane foundation is a replacement for river stone foundation.

B. Deeper Foundation

The deep foundation is used to channel the building load through weak soil layers or with small soil sigma (land sigma) conditions, besides that it is also used for heavy load construction. The following types of foundation in:

1. Bored pile

Bored pile is a foundation that is more than 2 meters deep. Used for the foundations of tall buildings. Before installing the pore bore, the soil surface is drilled first using a drilling machine. Until finding a very strong soil carrying capacity to support the foundation. After being drilled, it continued with the installation of the casing.

Installation of casing is needed so that the soil does not fall into the hole that has been drilled. After the installation of the casing was finished, proceed with inserting the iron reinforcement, then casting it with concrete. This foundation has a diameter of 20 Cm and above. And usually this foundation consists of 2 or more of which there is a pile cap.

2. Well Foundation

Well foundation is an intermediate form between shallow foundation and pile foundation. The wells foundation is very suitable to be used on poor soil and the hard soil layer is more than 3m deep. The diameter of the well is usually between 0.80 - 1.00 m and there is a possibility that in one building the diameter is different, this is because each column has a different load. The name of foundation is called well foundation, because in the process of making well-shaped holes. This hole is dug until it reaches hard or stable soil.

These wells are given buis concrete with a thickness of approximately 10 cm with pembesian. The bottom of the well is casted with a thickness of 40 cm to 1.00 m, above the castings the stone is arranged up to below the top 100 m of concrete. The topmost empty space was cast back and given an iron armature, which was used to tie the concrete plate above it. This concrete plate is similar to the local plate foundation, whose function is to bind between columns that are joined by concrete sloof.

03. Strauss Pile Foundation

Strauss pile foundation is a category of foundations in which there is still one type with a pile drill foundation but a smaller diameter and depth because the drill driving force is manual human power without the aid of a machine.

Manual pile drill tool that is simple and concise and not noisy in its implementation makes this foundation more used for the work of home or building foundation 2-3 floors in densely residential locations, often also applied to shop houses, warehouses, fences and others.

04. Pile Foundation

The pile is basically the same as the bore pile, it's just that distinguishes the basic ingredients. The stake uses finished concrete which is directly plugged directly into the ground using a pile machine. Because the tip of the pointed pile resembles a nail, therefore the pile does not require a drilling process.

The pile foundation is used in soft soil, marshy soil, with a small soil sigma (soil sigma), high groundwater conditions and hard soil in a very deep position. Materials for pile foundations are: bamboo, iron wood / ironwood, steel, and reinforced concrete. Here's the explanation:
  • Foundation of Wood Piles : The foundation of wooden piles in Indonesia is used on stilt houses in the Kalimantan region, in Sumatra, in Nusa Tenggara, and in fishermen's houses on the beach. Wood piles are limited in height to the wood available.
  • Foundation of Concrete Piles : The concrete pillar foundation is used for high rise buildings. The foundation of concrete piles can be made very deep using reinforced concrete piles that are stronger than wood piles.
Thus regarding the type of foundation based on its depth, before determining the type of foundation a soil test is needed to determine the location or depth of hard soil at the project site. This requires the assistance of a structural expert.
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