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Definition of Management: Functions, Objectives, Elements, and Types of Management


What is management? Management is a process to organize something done by a group of people or organizations to achieve the goals of the organization by working together to utilize the resources they have.


Etymologically the word management is taken from ancient French, namely "menagement", which means art in organizing and implementing. Management can also be defined as an effort to plan, coordinate, organize and control resources to achieve goals efficiently and effectively. Effective in this case is to achieve goals according to planning and efficiently to carry out work correctly and organized.

An organization needs management in several ways; includes strategic management, human resource management, production, marketing and other managements. The following are the definition of management according to experts :

Mary Parker Follet

According to Mary Parker Follet, management is an art in completing work through other people. In other words, a manager is in charge of managing and directing others to achieve the goals of the organization.

George Robert Terry

According to George Robert Terry, the notion of management is a typical process consisting of several actions; planning, organizing, mobilizing and monitoring. All of that is done to determine and achieve the targets or targets to be achieved by utilizing all resources, including human resources and other resources.

Henry Fayol

According to Henry Fayol, the management is a process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling / controlling existing resources in order to achieve objectives effectively and efficiently.

Management Function in Business

Management functions are the basic elements that must be inherent in management as a reference for manager (someone who manages) in carrying out the task of achieving goals by planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling. Referring to the definition of Management above, there are 5 main functions of management in business :

1. Planning

Planning is the most important in a business management. A manager who manages management in a company or business will plan and evaluate every action that has been and has not been followed up in the business.

2. Organizing

The second function of management in business is organizing by dividing large activities into several small activities or a series of activities. The aim is to make it easier for managers to conduct more effective supervision and determine the resources needed for each activity that has been divided into more efficient.

3. Staffing

Similar to organizing, but its use is wider. If organizing pays more attention to human resource management, staffing pays more attention to resources in general. Some of these resources include; equipment, equipment, and inventory in an organization.

4. Directing

The function of management in the last business is as an action that seeks that each member of the business or group is able to achieve the targets and targets according to the planned managerial procedures. A manager will direct if a problem occurs or if what is done is not as planned.

5. Controlling

From a series of plans and actions that have been carried out, it needs supervision or controlling. The function of business management in this case is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of company resources.

Management Elements

In forming a good managerial system, management elements are needed in it. All of these elements complement each other, and if one of these elements does not exist, it impacts on the overall results of achieving an organization.

1. Human

The most decisive factor in management is human itself. In practice, humans make goals and carry out the process of achieving those goals. In other words, the work process will not occur if there are no human elements in it.

2. Money

Money is an element of management that is very influential because the results of activities can be measured by the amount circulating in a company. The element of money as a tool in the process of achieving goals with rationally calculated uses.

The use of money in a company is for operational costs, such as employee salaries, purchase and maintenance of office equipment, and other equipment needed by the company.

3. Materials

Material consists of raw material and semi-finished materials. Material is an important factor in the business world because good results can only be achieved if there is good material.

4. Machines

Machines are needed by humans to do difficult work easier and faster. The use of machinery will increase yields and profits and make the work process more effective and efficient.

5. Methods (Methods)

The process of implementing the work can only run effectively and efficiently with the right method. A work method must take into account goals, facilities, time, money and business activities. In addition, the right and good method must also be understood by the people who run it. In other words, a method can only work well if humans are involved.

6. Market (Market)

The product marketing process is an element of management that is very crucial for a company. If there is no marketing, the item will not sell and never give any revenue. A business can dominate the market with quality products and in accordance with the interests and purchasing power of consumers. That is why the marketing process is very closely related to the quality of the goods being marketed.

The management knowledge turned out to be very broad and examples of the application of management in everyday life are actually very many. And basically human life is never separated from management science, from small things to big things.
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