The main feature of tropical buildings is located on the roof using a triangular roof, wide overstep, shading, a garden with shady trees, and of course the choice of building materials used.
The word tropical means the condition of an area that is located near the equator, where the area has two seasons and there is abundant sunshine throughout the year. Indonesia is an example of a vast tropical country.
As a result of these climatic conditions affect the style of buildings made by people who live in the tropics. Buildings and houses are made and adapted in such a way that they are comfortable to live in the tropics with lots of radiation and rain.
More about the characteristics of tropical buildingI will explain one by one the following:
01 Tropical buildings use a triangular roof with roof spaceThe characteristics of tropical buildings and houses built in the tropics generally use triangular roofs. Either in the form of pyramid roofs, saddles, cones or overlapping triangular roofs.
The main reason why tropical buildings use triangular roofs is because the roof is as fast as providing roof space for thermal insulation which prevents solar heat directly into the room.
The triangle roof is considered to be the best construction to prevent heat. So as proof, we can see that almost all traditional houses and buildings in Indonesia have triangular roofs and even overlapping triangles. This is a form of adaptation to tropical buildings that have been applied by our ancestors thousands of years ago.
In addition to the ability to heat insulation, the triangular roof is also easy to drain rain water. Tropical buildings also have to deal with high rainfall. In areas with very high rainfall, the angle of the roof will be increasingly sharp, with slopes ranging from 37 to 40 degrees.
02 Wide roof overstepIn addition to the shape of the triangular roof, the characteristics of tropical buildings that are most visible from the outside are the overstep roof. overstep is the name for a roof protrusion that exceeds the building area. In tropical buildings, the roof area must exceed the width of the building layout.
overstep serves as a shadowing element in the building and overshadows the window so that the bright sunlight at high angles will not enter tropical buildings. Like a tree that stretches up.
Besides overstep it also serves to protect from the entry of rainwater and prevent tampias. Please note that rain in the tropics sometimes falls with a certain slope so that by overstep it will prevent water from entering the building and protect the outside of the building from splashing water.
The width of the overstep in tropical buildings should be adjusted to the height of the building. The higher the wider the overstep. For buildings with a column height of 3 meters, you should use overstep with a width of at least 1 meter. While this also needs to be adjusted to the proportion of the height and width of the building so that it still looks aesthetically pleasing.
Overstep can be directly made from a stretched triangular roof or by making additional topian (roof top) with a triangular construction or with a flat concrete plate (topian).
03 There is shading in the buildingIn addition to using overstep, the characteristics of other tropical buildings are the use of shading. Shading or shadowing is placed on the open or window to prevent the entry of heat.
Shading in tropical buildings can be made with curtains, roller blinds or curtains. Maybe we see a lot of the use of bamboo blinds on the terrace of houses in the village which aims to reduce the heat of the sun.
04 Arrangement of Building Layout and Building OrientationStructuring the layout of tropical buildings is generally very sensitive to the direction of sunlight. This will affect the window openings used. Tropical buildings usually avoid making windows in the east and west because they will make heat in the room.
The hallmark of a tropical building layout also has an outer shape of a building with a little bulge of space. This is intended so that the roof of the building can be made perfect limasan. Making roofs with saplings does look aesthetic but prone to leakage.
05 Window size is not too largeThe existence of windows and ventilation in tropical buildings is very important. Another feature of tropical buildings is a window that is not too large. People who live in the tropics get very much the intensity of solar radiation so they reduce the sun's rays and instead take shelter from the sun's heat.
Unlike the subtropical and polar regions that need sunlight so much that they make large windows without overstek. In tropical buildings, each window must be overshadowed by overstek and a topian to prevent heat when at a high angle.
06 VentilationIn tropical buildings that are a very common feature is the ventilation to enter air in the room. Tropical buildings generally use a cross ventilation system (cross ventilation) so that the air actually flows in the room and reduces the heat of the building.
Cross ventilation enters air from one side of the building and ejects it on the opposite side. This can occur naturally following wind pressure.
07 Shady gardenIn tropical buildings usually use a shady garden. The characteristics of the park in tropical buildings is to use tall plants that accompany the building. It aims to help shade the building in the heat of the sun. In addition, tall plants are also a conditioning and oxygen provider for residents of the house.
08 Building materialsThe characteristics of tropical buildings which are also quite prominent from tropical buildings are the use of materials that are resistant to hot weather and rain. The condition of tropical ilkim is actually quite hard and quickly damages various materials that become the skin of the building. Material in tropical buildings must be tough, able to isolate heat and not quickly damaged by rainwater.
Buildings in the tropics use a lot of materials from wood and bamboo. Both of these materials are renewable materials. Wood and bamboo also flourish in the tropics.
Now that's the characteristics of tropical buildings that are made adjusting to the natural conditions of the tropics that get lots of sun and rain. The characteristics of this tropical building should be used as guidelines for designing various buildings including houses.